Down syndrome is defined as a condition that is caused by the presence of extra chromosomes in a baby’s 21st chromosome pair. Down syndrome, which occurs in 1 in 750 to 1000 births worldwide and in Turkey; It can cause physical growth retardation, facial features and moderate mental retardation.
This genetic difference, the cause of which has not yet been determined, is manifested by the presence of common symptoms such as a common facial features, almond-shaped eyes, low muscle density, tongue drooping, cleft palate, wide thumb and second finger, sometimes together. Or sometimes multiple. These children also have congenital heart disease.
Finally, providing statements on the subject, Assoc. Dr. Seville Karaman, He said that Down syndrome is a chromosomal incompatibility.
Karaman states that the number of chromosomes in the human body is 46, the number of chromosomes in people with Down syndrome is 47 and says:
“This occurs when an extra chromosome is added to the 21st chromosome pair as a result of incorrect division during cell division. For this reason, Down syndrome is also known as ‘trisomy 21’. Down syndrome is the most common chromosome incompatibility in newborns. Nose and split and oblique eyes are the distinctive features of these children. Heart asymmetry, vision and hearing disorders are common.
Eye and vision disorders are common in children with Down syndrome. Although mild eye diseases such as tearing and refractive errors can occur, serious diseases such as strabismus, cataracts, nystagmus (eye tremor) and keratoconus can also be seen. For this reason, parents should be more careful because children with Down syndrome are at higher risk of eye disease. Providing vision through early diagnosis and treatment makes a positive contribution to the lives of children, both cognitively and psychologically.
“Children with Down syndrome may need more glasses”
Assoc. Dr. Seville Karaman points to Strabismus and Nystagmus, which may be due to Down syndrome. Explaining strabismus because the two eyes are not parallel, Karaman said, “It can cause double vision at first and then lazy eyes. This requires glasses, surgery or combined treatment. The condition is more serious in children with conjunctivitis. Less vision is more likely than other eye diseases.” Used phrases.
Caraman said frequent childhood cataracts in children with Down syndrome are the cause of lazy eyes, and stressed that surgery should be planned at the most appropriate time and the necessary optical corrections should not be neglected later.
Karaman said that children with Down syndrome may need more glasses and provided the following information:
“One study found 26 percent hyperopia, 13 percent myopia, and 60 percent vision loss. Housing failure, which can cause reading difficulties and hand-eye delays, is found in 60 to 75 percent of children with Down syndrome. Although untreated, the child’s academic and academic eye tests are similar to those of children their age, but children with Down syndrome sometimes need a planned test for young children due to learning difficulties. This may be easier for them.
Keratoconus is a preventable disease that can cause vision loss. In keratoconus, the transparent layer called the ‘cornea’ in front of the eye loses its normal shape and assumes a conical shape. It is especially important not to rub the eyes to prevent the progression of keratoconus. An eye test for keratoconus should also be done. Also, preterm and low birth weight babies with Down syndrome should be evaluated for prematurity and cerebral / cortical retinopathy.