What is distortion, what does it mean in medicine? How many types of optical errors and distortions?

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Confusion is a property of an optical system, such as a lens, that spreads light over an area of ​​space instead of focusing on a single point.

What is aberration?

In a standard lens, light from any point of an object will pass through the lens and converge at a single point on the image plane. Unlike standard lenses, real lenses do not focus light on a single point. These deviations from standardized lens performance are known as lens distortion.

What is meant by confusion in medicine?

Deviation is medically known as optical abortion. Optical illusion, on the other hand, in contrast to the standard lens, real lenses do not focus light at a single point. These deviations from standardized lens performance are known as lens distortion.

How many types of optical defects and aberrations?

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When considering a single wavelength of light, there are five monochromatic distortions to consider. These;

Round deviation,



Field curvature,

Distortion (color distortion).

When the light is not monochromatic (not of a single wavelength), the lenses have a sixth distortion. But it is not found in mirrors and is called chromatic abortion.

Round deviation

In spherical distortion, light rays from a point on the optical axis of a spherical lens do not meet in the same perspective. The rays near the center are centered away from the rays passing through a circular region near the circle. A circular cross-section is formed when a plane is placed perpendicular to the optical axis to intersect a cone. The cross-sectional area varies with the distance along the optical axis. The smallest size is known as the circle of least confusion. The most rounded distortion-free images are found at this distance.


The name “coma” derives from the fact that when rays from the point of an off-axis object are viewed by different regions of the lens, the image of a point becomes blurred in the shape of a comet. In a spherical distortion, the perpendiculars of the optical axis to the point of an object falling on a plane are rounded to different sizes and placed above a common center. In a coma, images of an off-axis object point are round, of different sizes, but dispersed relative to each other.


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Perspective is the result of an inability to focus an off-axis point image of a single lens region on a single point. Planes Known as meridian planes and sagittal planes, meridian planes are planes containing off-axis object points. Diagonal rays are not focused on the meridian plane, but far away from the rays in the plane. In both cases, the rays meet each other as a perpendicular line, not at a single point of focus. Between these two positions, the images are elliptical.

Curvature and distortion of the field

The curvature and distortion of the field indicate the position of the diagram relative to each other. The three distortions mentioned so far can be corrected by correcting the lens design, but these two distortions can be avoided. At the curvature of the field, the image of a plane perpendicular to the optical axis will be on a paraboloidal surface known as the Petzval surface. Distortion refers to the distortion of an image. There are two types of distortion, namely barrel distortion and pincushion distortion.

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The inability of a lens to focus all colors on the same plane is called chromatic aberration. Chromatic distortion affects the magnification along the optic axis and its perpendicular axis. The first is known as longitudinal chromatic distortion and the second is known as lateral chromatic distortion. The red refractive index is therefore the focal length of a lens in the air will be greater than the blue and purple lengths for red and green.

The refractive index is also called refractive index or refractive index. The speed of light of a medium depends on the properties of the medium. The speed of electromagnetic waves depends on the optical density of the medium. Optical density is the tendency of atoms of a material to recover absorbed electromagnetic energy. The denser the material optically, the lower the speed of light. An indicator similar to the optical density of a medium is its refractive index.

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