The general situation of Turkish cinema, which was heavily influenced by the political and social environment in the 1990s

Although the 1990s were the days when American and European cinema produced their most productive products and many contemporary films were included in the list of best films, Turkish cinema entered these years, crushed by problems from the 1970s and 80s. The 90s, which we can describe as the most difficult years of Turkish cinema, also claim to remember the years when Turkish cinema acquired a new cinematic language and style and trained new filmmakers.

Especially in the second half of the 90’s, Turkish cinema, which went into a severe shock, both popular movies started to emerge and writer-directors made separate films with different tastes and colors.

In the early 90’s, the biggest problem of Turkish cinema was not being able to find a theater to shoot movies shot during the economic crisis.

By law enacted in 1987, Hollywood’s major films became exclusive in the distribution and screening industry, occupying Hollywood cinema halls; Local movie shooting, distribution and a theater were not available except for a very small number. With this law, the remaining regional business and production system from Yesilkam was destroyed, and Turkish cinema fell without an owner and a theater.

Although there was a lot of difficulty in finding a theater and meeting the audience, filmmaking declined a lot compared to the 80’s, but it did not stop. Because even after the end of the production system, the support received by filmmakers has diversified. The state, which did not support cinema until 1989, began supporting films from this year, albeit weakly. However, since this support will remain like a camel’s ear until the law is passed in 2004, it is not an ointment for wounds. That is, in 1993, the movie cost 8-10 billion, but the support was about 300 million. However, it was cut off during the tenure of the welfare-road government.

In 1990, we joined the European Cinema Support Fund Urimiz, established in 1988, and we received strong support from this fund throughout the 1990s, and many of our films that left a mark in the 1990s could be shot in this support. Urimaj. However, it should not be assumed that Urijes has completely solved the problem of financing Turkish cinema. Because it meets four times a year and selects a film to support at each meeting. It is clear that the crisis of Turkish cinema will not end with the support of four or five films a year. Because, according to Nigar Pösteki, the number of movies shot in support of Urim in the 90’s is 41.

During this time, a project called “10 Directors and 2 Films” produced by the Cinema Foundation is being implemented to revive Turkish cinema and bring audiences together. Ten worthy directors of Yesilsam, such as Om Roast, Jackie Okten, Ali Ojenturk and Atif Ilmaz, are making five short films of twenty minutes. The short film is being screened in two films titled Everything Unspoken About Love and Gravity Love. But when the expected interest did not come, the Cinema Foundation’s project was stopped.

In addition, private TV channels, launched in 1990 and multiplied in a short period of time, supported the movie by purchasing commercial rights to the movie, sponsorship support or advertising contracts were weak to put out the fire and could not be mobilized. Necessary movement. Whatever he did, the audience had to be persuaded and Turkish cinema had to become a movie theatrical again and it had to bring success at the box office to break the monopoly of Hollywood.

Sinan Katin’s Berlin Berlin (1992) and American film Shenar Sen (1993) by Bay E (1995) and Sheriff were the first to hope that Turkish films would hit the box office.

But Turkish cinema is making a big splash with Yavuz Turgul’s Bandit (1996).

Reaching 2.5 million in revenue, the bandits broke a record for a huge audience, which was unimaginable for that time. Bandit, a crime film that has many sub-texts and centers on a tragic love story, was able to capture the dynamics of Hollywood films and give viewers accustomed to foreign films what they wanted. The bandit, who attracted a lot of attention, was able to stay in the theater for 57 weeks.

Filmed in support of Urimaze and the two countries, Bandit became a milestone for Turkish cinema; This brings the audience back to the theater and makes it attractive to investors in the movie. The bandit movie not only makes young people love Turkish cinema, but also plays a role that gives the country a soundtrack album culture. Erkan Ogur’s catchy music was turned into an album, and the movie broke the movie record, while his album had a lot of sales figures in the music market.

Where television stars, old-new comedians take part one after another to raise and perpetuate the bandits;

istanbul under my wing (1996) and heavy novels (mostafa altioklar-1997)
Everything will be fine (Varmer Vargı-1998),
Promotion (Sinan Setin-1999),
Beach Byzantine (Gani Gospel-1999),
Shooting for popular movies like Cluster Ladies Grains (Tomris giritlioğlu-1999) has started.

In 1996, a pioneering film was shot in the movie, which was seen as an “art movie” where directors from various channels for Turkish cinema directed Derviş zaim, Dashu: Coffin Rewind (1996).

Although it was shot on a very low budget and with the support of friends, it ignited the fuse of “Turkish new movies”. Indeed, we can say that perhaps the most important feature of the 90s was the separation of popular commercial films and arthouse-independent cinema.
Now, the pink shuttered narratives of the Yesilkam era are over, and filmmakers, who have escaped the pressure of producers and even ignored the pressure of the audience, have begun to create a new language.

This new generation, which deals with the common problems of the time; They have made films that deal with the inner world of the individual with miscommunication, isolation, deep and multidimensional characters:

Nuri Bilge Ghazlan: The Town (1997), May Trouble (1999)
Jackie Demirkubuz: The C Block (1994), Innocence (1997), Third Page (1999).
Yesim Ustaoglu: Trace (1995), Journey to the Sun (1999)
Reha Punya: How Much Money (1999)
Serdar Akar: Jahaje (1998)
Main Steel: Don’t turn off the lights (1996), Goodbye Tomorrow (1998)

How much money how much

Young writer managers, who portrayed their personal worlds with short stories in the 90’s, were looking for a stream bed to flow in, older generation directors who also gave their final products in the Yesilkam era and 80’s:

Atif Ilmaz: Dream Travelers (1992), Nihavend Miracle (1997)
Memduh Fame: The Origins of Jigkim (1993)
Halit Refığ: Hanım (1989), Wives’ Ward (1990), Two Strangers (1991), Dogs Island (1997)
Sheriff’s Viewer: American (1993)
Clever Octane: Goodbye (2000)
The Arden King: Blue Exile (1993)
Youssef Kursenli: Blackout Nights (1990)
And one of the most important writer-directors of Turkish cinema, Omar’s Roster: The Hidden Face (1991) and The Journey of the Scorpion (1997).

The national (white) cinema, represented by Yücel Çakmaklı in the 1970s, began shooting political films in the 1990s, not just a directional film. Although their artistic value is low, films with high publicity power do a great job at the box office in parallel with the growing political Islamist movement and have an impact on religious audiences:
Yücel Flintlock: Minyeli Abdullah (1990), Bleeding Wound Bosnia (1994), Bosnia Blue Darkness (1994)
Mesut Usan: You Are Not Alone (1990), Eskilipli Atif Teacher (1993)
Ismail Surya: Boots (1993), Where the Roses End (1998)
Matin Mudaku: How You Hit Us (1994)

Iskilipli Atif Hodja

Finally, let’s end with one or a few examples from movies that should be known when it comes to the 1990s.

Engin Ayça: It was cold and it was raining (1990) and Yavuz Turgul: Unforgettable Director of Love Movies (1990).
Tunç Başaran: A Long Fine Road (1991) and Ali Özgenturk: ​​Nude (1991)
Melih Gulgen: Tatar Ramadan in Exile (1992) and Irfan Tozum: Attraction Hanims Day Dreams (1992)
Yavuz Turgul: Shadow Play (1993) and Bronze Okan: Yellow Mercedes (1993).
Ersin Parton: Reverse World (1994) and Yusuf Kursenli: Dissolution (1994).
Unal Earrings: Lecher Cefetin (1995)
Tamaris Giritlioglu: Step 80 (1996)
Farzan Ozpatek: Turkish Bath (1997)
Bronze Achiever: Madness Diploma (1998)
Orhan Oguz: Children of the Black City (1999)

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