Rural institutions are one of the best examples of the Turkish education revolution – Gurhan Ekedogan

Date of entry of the article: 26.05.2022 07:51

Rural institutions were undoubtedly one of the most important advances in the Turkish Revolution and Enlightenment. As Mustafa Kemal Ataturk says; “Education makes a nation live as a free, independent, glorious, high community; Or put him in captivity and misery. “ Atatর্কrk attached so much importance to education that on July 15, 1921, he returned from the battlefield and directed the Education Congress in Ankara and laid the foundation of the Turkish education system. Rural institutions in the 100-year history of the Ottoman state and the Republic of Turkey It is still an exemplary revolutionary project considering the impact it has made in 14 years.

Rural institutions are the flower of hope that blooms in the hills and mountains of the country. We respectfully remember the educational revolutionaries such as Safet Arkan, Mustafa Nekati, Halil Youssel, Ismail Hakki Tonguch, who united the revolutions of Mustafa Kemal Atatর্rk and worked hard for this revolutionary project. The village institutes, a continuation of the village educators that started with the Atatুrk youth in 1936, were opened on April 17, 1940 with Act No. 3803. Cellul Bayer, Adnan Menderes, Kazim Karabekir, Fuat Koprulu and some deputies who do not want to enlighten the public, as well as many conservative, religious, zamindars opposed the law. The rural institution, which we will describe as the project of the revolution in education, was implemented jointly by Hasan Ali Youssel, who was appointed Minister of National Education on 28 December 1938, and Ismail Hakki Tonguk, Director General of Primary Education.

It was an illuminated project of the village

Rural organizations, against all kinds of counter-revolutionaries, Despite the Republican People’s Party’s concessions due to the government’s mistakes and the response of rural organizations, It has brought 17,342 teachers, 8,765 trainers, 7,300 health officials into the society. Between 1940 and 1946, 15,000 acres of farmland were converted to agriculture and produced in rural establishments. 750,000 saplings were planted. 1,200 acres of vineyards were created. In addition, 150 large constructions, 60 workshops, 210 teacher’s houses, 20 practice schools, 36 warehouses, 48 ​​granaries and granaries, 12 power plants, 16 water, 12 agricultural warehouses, 3 fisheries, 100 km. The road was paved. The students also provided irrigation water for the farms where the students have received practical training by constructing irrigation canals. The villagers have been enlightened, conscious development has started in the village. These places of learning, where 57 writers and poets were educated, were considered dangerous by the DP government and were closed down on January 27, 1954, 14 years later. The rural institutions that were shut down were democratic educational institutions that practiced a tradition of collaboration, where research was prioritized, free learning environment was preferred, students were engaged in an education based on production and work, where it had to acquire skills manually. Came to the front. , Transforms thoughts and minds into action, and students participate in school administration. The duration of education in institutions based on mixed education system was five years. According to the success of the first three years of the students, the most successful ones were directed towards teaching and the rest were directed towards other village services. The schools also served as agricultural workshops and health centers, where various seeds and agricultural equipment were first tested. Rural institutions had beehives, vineyards, fields, livestock, workshops, laboratories whose philosophy was “education for work”.

These training centers are a field that raised the ideas, conscience and wisdom of the free generation. Who went to Turkey in 1945 to test these schools. Educationist philosopher John Dewey said, “The schools of my dreams were established as rural institutions in Turkey. Considering these schools established by the Turks, it would be right for the whole world to restructure the education system. And This model, unique to our country, which has been recognized around the world as an exemplary education system, has been used since day one: “It is unethical for male and female students to study together.” It was humiliated and destroyed. By people of the same thought, so-called scientists, who pretended to be “the home of prostitution”, who want to ignore people and capture them in a culture of obedience, and who say they believe in the knowledge of ignorance. There is an urgent need for a secular, scientific, national, modern, enlightened, non-commercial, egalitarian, free education system by taking the model of rural institutions into consideration and creating a perfectionist education system.

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