Dermatologist Tugba Doruk has made important statements about tick-borne diseases in humans.
Tix is a vampire member of the Arachnida class of the arthropod family. Unlike insects, the body is one piece. Adult ticks have 4 pairs of legs. It is one of the most important vectors involved in human and animal disease transmission and plays a role in “hard ticks” serious diseases. They can cause many bacterial, rickettsiae, spirochetees, viruses, parasites, fungi, protozoa and worm diseases. Also, they can cause toxicosis, paralysis and allergic reactions. They are found in every part of the world.
The lifespan of ticks can vary from 2-3 years depending on the condition. They are active in spring and summer and can survive months after sucking blood. They feed on vertebrates and host human accidents. They can survive months after sucking blood.
Tick paralysis: Occurs 4-6 days after the tick settles on the skin. It can begin with discomfort and numbness in the legs and progress to respiratory paralysis. Tick removal before the last period provides healing within 24 hours.
Tick bite fever: Symptoms such as fever, chills and headache are seen as long as the tick stays on the body. Symptoms return 12-36 hours after tick removal.
Like other arthropod bites, red spots may appear. If the tissue has a mouth-to-mouth structure, the tightness may be permanent.
They are found in oak areas where wildlife is dominant. The natural cycle of CCHF is in the wild. Normally, it does not cause disease in animals, but this imbalance can cause infection in humans. Infections are transmitted to humans after tick bites or contact with infected blood products. The incubation period is 1-6 days. Early symptoms include 39-41 C0 fever, muscle-joint pain, and red eyes. In the following days, skin lesions and internal bleeding are seen. Diagnosis is confirmed by viral culture, ELISA test and PCR. There is no specific treatment for the disease, adjuvant treatment is the most important step of treatment.
Mediterranean spot disease (Marseille fever)
Mediterranean spotted fever (ABA), a type of rickettsiosis, manifests itself with chills, chills, high fever, weakness, and headache 7 days after the tick bite. After capillary inflammation, red rashes appear on the arms and legs and spread throughout the body. A black poppy wound (touch noir) appears at the site of the bite and is characteristic of this disease. Diagnosis is made using methods such as IFA and PCR. It is very important to use disease-specific antibiotics within the first 5 days.
It is more common in Europe and America. The disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria living in the salivary glands of ticks. The disease consists of 3 stages, in the first stage, an enlarged red ring rash starts from the bite site, in the second stage, the bacteria spreads to the lymph nodes and with many interconnected rings, the involvement of the heart and nervous system is observed. In the third stage, if left untreated, the skin of the joints, hands and veins may become thinner.
How can we protect ourselves from ticks?
It is impossible to completely eradicate ticks from nature, with the goal of reducing the tick population. Applications such as ectoparasite vaccine for domestic and wild animals and application of pesticides to the environment with acaricide can be applied, but the main goal is personal protection.
Clothing: Light colors should be preferred, darker clothes can be noticed more quickly by ticking and socks should be bald in trousers.
Insect repellents (DEET substances), also called repellants, provide protection for as short as 2.5 hours when applied to the skin.
Clothing and tent materials can be preferred which are made from impregnated fabrics with permethrin known as pesticide (insecticide).
If a tick bite is noticed, it should not be covered with petroleum jelly or chemically applied. The tick is stressed and it vomits all its saliva, causing toxins or infections to enter the bloodstream.
When removing the tick from the body, the tick should be pulled by applying a vertical force with a twisting motion counterclockwise with a blunt forceps without crushing or tearing the tick. Expert advice should be sought if the limbs of the mouth remain on the skin.